mne.MixedSourceEstimate

class mne.MixedSourceEstimate(data, vertices=None, tmin=None, tstep=None, subject=None, verbose=None)[source]

Container for mixed surface and volume source estimates.

Parameters
dataarray of shape (n_dipoles, n_times) | tuple, shape (2,)

The data in source space. The data can either be a single array or a tuple with two arrays: “kernel” shape (n_vertices, n_sensors) and “sens_data” shape (n_sensors, n_times). In this case, the source space data corresponds to “numpy.dot(kernel, sens_data)”.

verticeslist of array

Vertex numbers corresponding to the data.

tminscalar

Time point of the first sample in data.

tstepscalar

Time step between successive samples in data.

subjectstr | None

The subject name. While not necessary, it is safer to set the subject parameter to avoid analysis errors.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more).

See also

SourceEstimate

A container for surface source estimates.

VectorSourceEstimate

A container for vector source estimates.

VolSourceEstimate

A container for volume source estimates.

VolVectorSourceEstimate

A container for Volume vector source estimates.

Notes

New in version 0.9.0.

Attributes

times

A timestamp for each sample.

data

Numpy array of source estimate data.

shape

Shape of the data.

subject

(str | None) The subject name.

vertices

(list of array) The indices of the dipoles in each source space.

Methods

__add__(self, a)

Add source estimates.

__div__(self, a)

Divide source estimates.

__hash__(self, /)

Return hash(self).

__mul__(self, a)

Multiply source estimates.

__neg__(self)

Negate the source estimate.

__sub__(self, a)

Subtract source estimates.

bin(self, width[, tstart, tstop, func])

Return a source estimate object with data summarized over time bins.

copy(self)

Return copy of source estimate instance.

crop(self[, tmin, tmax])

Restrict SourceEstimate to a time interval.

mean(self)

Make a summary stc file with mean over time points.

plot_surface(self, src[, subject, surface, …])

Plot surface source estimates with PySurfer.

resample(self, sfreq[, npad, window, …])

Resample data.

save(self, fname[, ftype, verbose])

Save the full source estimate to an HDF5 file.

sqrt(self)

Take the square root.

sum(self)

Make a summary stc file with sum over time points.

time_as_index(self, times[, use_rounding])

Convert time to indices.

to_data_frame(self[, picks, index, …])

Export data in tabular structure as a pandas DataFrame.

transform(self, func[, idx, tmin, tmax, copy])

Apply linear transform.

transform_data(self, func[, idx, tmin_idx, …])

Get data after a linear (time) transform has been applied.

__add__(self, a)[source]

Add source estimates.

__div__(self, a)[source]

Divide source estimates.

__hash__(self, /)

Return hash(self).

__mul__(self, a)[source]

Multiply source estimates.

__neg__(self)[source]

Negate the source estimate.

__sub__(self, a)[source]

Subtract source estimates.

bin(self, width, tstart=None, tstop=None, func=<function mean at 0x7faa9ca718c8>)[source]

Return a source estimate object with data summarized over time bins.

Time bins of width seconds. This method is intended for visualization only. No filter is applied to the data before binning, making the method inappropriate as a tool for downsampling data.

Parameters
widthscalar

Width of the individual bins in seconds.

tstartscalar | None

Time point where the first bin starts. The default is the first time point of the stc.

tstopscalar | None

Last possible time point contained in a bin (if the last bin would be shorter than width it is dropped). The default is the last time point of the stc.

funccallable()

Function that is applied to summarize the data. Needs to accept a numpy.array as first input and an axis keyword argument.

Returns
stcSourceEstimate | VectorSourceEstimate

The binned source estimate.

copy(self)[source]

Return copy of source estimate instance.

crop(self, tmin=None, tmax=None)[source]

Restrict SourceEstimate to a time interval.

Parameters
tminfloat | None

The first time point in seconds. If None the first present is used.

tmaxfloat | None

The last time point in seconds. If None the last present is used.

data

Numpy array of source estimate data.

mean(self)[source]

Make a summary stc file with mean over time points.

Returns
stcSourceEstimate | VectorSourceEstimate

The modified stc.

plot_surface(self, src, subject=None, surface='inflated', hemi='lh', colormap='auto', time_label='time=%02.f ms', smoothing_steps=10, transparent=None, alpha=1.0, time_viewer=False, config_opts=None, subjects_dir=None, figure=None, views='lat', colorbar=True, clim='auto')[source]

Plot surface source estimates with PySurfer.

Note: PySurfer currently needs the SUBJECTS_DIR environment variable, which will automatically be set by this function. Plotting multiple SourceEstimates with different values for subjects_dir will cause PySurfer to use the wrong FreeSurfer surfaces when using methods of the returned Brain object. It is therefore recommended to set the SUBJECTS_DIR environment variable or always use the same value for subjects_dir (within the same Python session).

Parameters
srcSourceSpaces

The source spaces to plot.

subjectstr | None

The subject name corresponding to FreeSurfer environment variable SUBJECT. If None stc.subject will be used. If that is None, the environment will be used.

surfacestr

The type of surface (inflated, white etc.).

hemistr, ‘lh’ | ‘rh’ | ‘split’ | ‘both’

The hemisphere to display. Using ‘both’ or ‘split’ requires PySurfer version 0.4 or above.

colormapstr | np.ndarray of float, shape(n_colors, 3 | 4)

Name of colormap to use. See plot_source_estimates.

time_labelstr

How to print info about the time instant visualized.

smoothing_stepsint

The amount of smoothing.

transparentbool | None

If True, use a linear transparency between fmin and fmid. None will choose automatically based on colormap type.

alphafloat

Alpha value to apply globally to the overlay.

time_viewerbool

Display time viewer GUI.

config_optsdict

Keyword arguments for Brain initialization. See pysurfer.viz.Brain.

subjects_dirstr

The path to the FreeSurfer subjects reconstructions. It corresponds to FreeSurfer environment variable SUBJECTS_DIR.

figureinstance of mayavi.mlab.Figure | None

If None, the last figure will be cleaned and a new figure will be created.

viewsstr | list

View to use. See surfer.Brain.

colorbarbool

If True, display colorbar on scene.

climstr | dict

Colorbar properties specification. See plot_source_estimates.

Returns
braininstance of surfer.Brain

A instance of surfer.Brain from PySurfer.

resample(self, sfreq, npad='auto', window='boxcar', n_jobs=1, verbose=None)[source]

Resample data.

Parameters
sfreqfloat

New sample rate to use.

npadint | str

Amount to pad the start and end of the data. Can also be “auto” to use a padding that will result in a power-of-two size (can be much faster).

windowstr or tuple

Window to use in resampling. See scipy.signal.resample.

n_jobsint

Number of jobs to run in parallel.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more). Defaults to self.verbose.

Notes

For some data, it may be more accurate to use npad=0 to reduce artifacts. This is dataset dependent – check your data!

Note that the sample rate of the original data is inferred from tstep.

save(self, fname, ftype='h5', verbose=None)[source]

Save the full source estimate to an HDF5 file.

Parameters
fnamestr

The file name to write the source estimate to, should end in ‘-stc.h5’.

ftypestr

File format to use. Currently, the only allowed values is “h5”.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more). Defaults to self.verbose.

sfreq

Sample rate of the data.

shape

Shape of the data.

sqrt(self)[source]

Take the square root.

Returns
stcinstance of SourceEstimate

A copy of the SourceEstimate with sqrt(data).

sum(self)[source]

Make a summary stc file with sum over time points.

Returns
stcSourceEstimate | VectorSourceEstimate

The modified stc.

time_as_index(self, times, use_rounding=False)[source]

Convert time to indices.

Parameters
timeslist-like | float | int

List of numbers or a number representing points in time.

use_roundingbool

If True, use rounding (instead of truncation) when converting times to indices. This can help avoid non-unique indices.

Returns
indexndarray

Indices corresponding to the times supplied.

times

A timestamp for each sample.

tmin

The first timestamp.

to_data_frame(self, picks=None, index=None, scaling_time=1000.0, scalings=None, copy=True, start=None, stop=None, long_format=False)[source]

Export data in tabular structure as a pandas DataFrame.

Columns and indices will depend on the object being converted. Generally this will include as much relevant information as possible for the data type being converted. This makes it easy to convert data for use in packages that utilize dataframes, such as statsmodels or seaborn.

Parameters
picksstr | list | slice | None

Channels to include. Slices and lists of integers will be interpreted as channel indices. In lists, channel type strings (e.g., ['meg', 'eeg']) will pick channels of those types, channel name strings (e.g., ['MEG0111', 'MEG2623'] will pick the given channels. Can also be the string values “all” to pick all channels, or “data” to pick data channels. None (default) will pick all channels.

indextuple of str | None

Column to be used as index for the data. Valid string options are ‘epoch’, ‘time’ and ‘condition’. If None, all three info columns will be included in the table as categorial data.

scaling_timefloat

Scaling to be applied to time units.

scalingsdict | None

Scaling to be applied to the channels picked. If None, defaults to scalings=dict(eeg=1e6, grad=1e13, mag=1e15, misc=1.0).

copybool

If true, data will be copied. Else data may be modified in place.

startint | None

If it is a Raw object, this defines a starting index for creating the dataframe from a slice. The times will be interpolated from the index and the sampling rate of the signal.

stopint | None

If it is a Raw object, this defines a stop index for creating the dataframe from a slice. The times will be interpolated from the index and the sampling rate of the signal.

long_formatbool

If True, the dataframe is returned in long format where each row is one observation of the signal at a unique coordinate of channels, time points, epochs and conditions. The number of factors depends on the data container. For convenience, a ch_type column is added when using this option that will facilitate subsetting the resulting dataframe. Defaults to False.

Returns
dfinstance of pandas.DataFrame

A dataframe suitable for usage with other statistical/plotting/analysis packages. Column/Index values will depend on the object type being converted, but should be human-readable.

transform(self, func, idx=None, tmin=None, tmax=None, copy=False)[source]

Apply linear transform.

The transform is applied to each source time course independently.

Parameters
funccallable()

The transform to be applied, including parameters (see, e.g., functools.partial()). The first parameter of the function is the input data. The first two dimensions of the transformed data should be (i) vertices and (ii) time. See Notes for details.

idxarray | None

Indices of source time courses for which to compute transform. If None, all time courses are used.

tminfloat | int | None

First time point to include (ms). If None, self.tmin is used.

tmaxfloat | int | None

Last time point to include (ms). If None, self.tmax is used.

copybool

If True, return a new instance of SourceEstimate instead of modifying the input inplace.

Returns
stcsSourceEstimate | VectorSourceEstimate | list

The transformed stc or, in the case of transforms which yield N-dimensional output (where N > 2), a list of stcs. For a list, copy must be True.

Notes

Transforms which yield 3D output (e.g. time-frequency transforms) are valid, so long as the first two dimensions are vertices and time. In this case, the copy parameter must be True and a list of SourceEstimates, rather than a single instance of SourceEstimate, will be returned, one for each index of the 3rd dimension of the transformed data. In the case of transforms yielding 2D output (e.g. filtering), the user has the option of modifying the input inplace (copy = False) or returning a new instance of SourceEstimate (copy = True) with the transformed data.

Applying transforms can be significantly faster if the SourceEstimate object was created using “(kernel, sens_data)”, for the “data” parameter as the transform is applied in sensor space. Inverse methods, e.g., “apply_inverse_epochs”, or “apply_lcmv_epochs” do this automatically (if possible).

transform_data(self, func, idx=None, tmin_idx=None, tmax_idx=None)[source]

Get data after a linear (time) transform has been applied.

The transform is applied to each source time course independently.

Parameters
funccallable()

The transform to be applied, including parameters (see, e.g., functools.partial()). The first parameter of the function is the input data. The first return value is the transformed data, remaining outputs are ignored. The first dimension of the transformed data has to be the same as the first dimension of the input data.

idxarray | None

Indicices of source time courses for which to compute transform. If None, all time courses are used.

tmin_idxint | None

Index of first time point to include. If None, the index of the first time point is used.

tmax_idxint | None

Index of the first time point not to include. If None, time points up to (and including) the last time point are included.

Returns
data_tndarray

The transformed data.

Notes

Applying transforms can be significantly faster if the SourceEstimate object was created using “(kernel, sens_data)”, for the “data” parameter as the transform is applied in sensor space. Inverse methods, e.g., “apply_inverse_epochs”, or “apply_lcmv_epochs” do this automatically (if possible).

tstep

The change in time between two consecutive samples (1 / sfreq).

Examples using mne.MixedSourceEstimate